Science Test

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Date(s) - 10/11/2016
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Chapter 13: Earth, Moon, and Beyond                                     STUDY GUIDE for Science Test

  1. *Axis: An imaginary line that passes through Earth’s center and its North and South Poles p. 400
  2. *Moon phase: One of the shapes the moon seems to have as it orbits Earth p. 411
  3. Eclipse: An event that occurs when one object in space passes through the shadow of another object in space p. 412
  4. *Star: A huge ball of very hot gases in space p. 416
  5. *Solar system: A star and all the planets and other objects that revolve around it p. 416
  6. *Constellation: A pattern of stars named after a mythological or religious figure, an object, or an animal p. 417
  7. *Planet: A body that revolves around a star p. 419
  8. *Universe: Everything that exists, including such things as stars, planets, gas, dust, and energy p. 422
  9. *Galaxy: A grouping of gas, dust, and many stars, plus any objects that orbit those stars p. 422

                                 Know the phases of the moon.

*Compare and contrast the Earth and the Moon.

  • Earth: larger size, stronger gravity looks blue from space
  • Liquid water and green forests
  • The Moon: smaller size, weaker gravity, looks gray from space, no liquid water or green forests
  • Both: rocky, fairly dense, make of same elements, craters

*Time zones are the basis for timekeeping on Earth. People needed standard times to avoid confusion after they began to travel long distances on trains.

The position of Earth in relation to the sun changes, depending on where the Earth is in its orbit.  During the summer in the Northern Hemisphere, that hemisphere points toward the sun.  During spring and fall neither hemisphere points toward the sun.

During the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, the number of hours of daylight is at its highest.  During summer also, the sun’s rays hit the Northern Hemisphere more directly, not at as great an angle as in winter.  This causes more heating because the sun’s rays don’t spread out as much.

There are four inner planets and four outer planets and they are separated by a huge asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.  The four inner planets are rocky and dense, whereas the four outer planets are gas giants. Pluto is not a “planet” but it is small and rocky.

Pluto is the only outer planet that is small and rocky. It is a dwarf planet.

Galaxy can be barred spiral, elliptical, and irregular but not circular.

Earth’s orbit and tilt causes seasonal changes on Earth.

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of crewed space explorations and space probes.

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Draw and identify the two kinds of eclipses.  Then describe each kind of eclipses.  How do solar and lunar eclipses differ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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If you tie a string to a rock and spin the rock in a circle, you are modeling the orbit of Earth (the rock) around the sun (your hand).  What would happen if the string were only half as long and still being turned with the same force?

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Then compare this thought with Earth’s orbit around the sun and moon’s orbit around Earth. Think about the time and space relationships between your hand and the rock.

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